Natural Environment Monitoring



Bogusław Kazimierski, Ewa Pilichowska-Kazimierska
The monitoring and estimate of the underground water condition in Poland
[Monitoring i ocena stanu wód podziemnych w Polsce]

The Poland accession to European Union and implementation of European legislation caused for the principle changes in farming and the resource water protection. One of basic instruments of water economics is the monitoring of waters which the task is determinativeness areas where their supplies be menaced, both the quantity and quality relation and the tailing of undertaken repair working results.


Anna Degórska, Tomasz Śnieżek
Precipitation amount correction for the purpose of atmospheric pollutants loads calculation

[Korekcja wysokości opadów na potrzeby szacowania ładunków zanieczyszczeń wnoszonych do podłoża z opadem atmosferycznym]

The experiment of parallel precipitation amount measurements at different levels above ground has been conducted at Puszcza Borecka Integrated Monitoring Station during one year. Three sites have been established: 1,5 m a.g.l. (collecting surface of precipitation collector for chemical analysis), 1 m a.g.l. (collecting surface of standard rain gauge) and 0 m a.g.l. (for which pollutants load delivered to the ground is calculated). Relative differences of precipitation amounts for these levels have been calculated for particular seasons as well as for type and amount of precipitation. Due to the importance of these differences the authors have proposed correction factors for the calculation of pollutants loads delivered to the ground with precipitation.

Hubert Wróblewski
The comparison of measurements near-surface ozone concentration on chosen European stations
[Porównanie pomiarów ozonu w przyziemnej warstwie troposfery na wybranych stacjach europejskich]

The ozone is the natural component of troposphere produced during photochemical reactions. On terrain of Europe measurements of this gas have been led since 19th century. Investigations published by many authors (np. Chatfield, Harrisom 1977, Fabian, Pruchniewicz 1976, 1977, Loibl and others 1994, Brönnimann and others 2000, Ribas, Penuelas 2004) prove, that concentrations ozone size as well as its dynamics are closelycoupled with the bearings measuring point. The quantity of ozone and its occurrence cycle change with geographical latitude as well as height over the sea The stations laid on different heights over the sea level and being more or less breadth geographical wise of The Holy Cross Station, were chosen to analysis. Moreover, the European stations, executed the distant the regard himself about 10o geographical latitude and laid on the height approximate to the location of Holy Cross station (475 - 534 m a.g.l.), were On the grounds of the measurements of ozone was executed the analysis of concentrations with the agglomeration help of method Warda where it was the measure of distance 1 - r Pearsona. All accessible results of measurements were used in first phase of analysis. Singles out four groups of station was the result of analysis answering diverse position.


Rafał Kozłowski
The physico-chemical propriety and chemistry of throughfall on „Białe Zagłębie” region
[Właściwości fizykochemiczne i chemizm opadu podkoronowego na terenie „Białego Zagłębia”]

In present work the results of investigations were introduced relating spatial the differentiation of propriety physico-chemical and chemical constitution of rainfall. It the quantity of fall, pH, electrolytical conductivity as well as chemical constitution in track of measurements was analysed on content K and Na. For thus purpose 40 throughfalls put on plan of rectangular mesh situated in grounds of hornbeam – beech – pine stand were used. In track of investigations affirm, that among studied proprieties, it was been possible to deal out two groups of features. To the group of the faintly variables guild was numbered the pH as well as size of fall. The second group of the guilds make up the strongly and very strongly variables, with the measurements of the potassium load, the hydrogen load, the sodium load as well as size of electrolytical conductivity. The analysis of got results show, that the use, for example at least 10 - 15 throughfalls, put in regular way on plan of rectangular mesh or cross permits on catch the differentiations spatial rainfall. Such number of measuring points should reflect the whole spectra of changes, what step out in grounds of stand, connected with storey, short-circuit and thickness of the trees' crowns, distance from the trees' trunks as well as the hatches among crowns. The important indicator for planning the optimum number of measuring points should be also the analysis of changeability coefficient for individual parameters. Near small values CV is possible usage smaller number catchers, whose number should to grow larger with growth its value together however.

Witold Bochenek
Dynamic and impact of factors influencing on soil moisture of flysch Carpathian slope covers on the example of the IG&SO PAS experimental slope at Szymbark
[Dynamika i wpływ czynników kształtujących wilgotność karpackich fliszowych pokryw stokowych na przykładzie stoku doświadczalnego IGiPZ PAN w Szymbarku]

This paper shows results of soil moisture investigations on the flysch Carpathian slope, measured by TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) technique in two profiles during one year (a break during winter). Author has analysed the influence selected meteorological factors: precipitation (total and intensity), airtemperature and ground-temperature on soil moisture. It investigated relationships between moisture on measuring points on selected profiles (measurement every 10 cm down). Presented results became completed with information, which got on the base of experiment concerning velocity of moisture progress in soil.

Alojzy Kowalkowski, Halina Kopron
Dynamics of pH-values in buffering ranges of soils in Pinus regeneration cultures under nitrogene emmission influence
[Dynamika wartości pH w przedziałach buforowości gleb w regeneracyjnych uprawach sosnowych w zasięgu emisji azotowej]

The research over possibilities for regeneration of pine woods in conditions the still lasting nitrogenous emission was realized on after-forestal terrains in 1995–2004, devastated by long-lasting strong nitrogenous emissions. The Scotch pine was planted to ploughed up furrows, in podzolic-rust soils produced from eolian sands, was as well the leveling potassium and phosphorous fertilization as apply in spring year 1996, after compensatory liming on autumn of 1995 year. The frequency occurrence of the value pHH2O in the buffered solution compartments in year seasons, in fertilization combinations, dynamics of course of profile depth line of value pH and the source of acidification the soils as well as dynamics acidity soils dependence on the moisture and some nutritious components easily migrating in soil solution were introduced on the basis of the gathered in years 1995-2004 data. In summing-up affirm that the ploughing up the furrows in soils altered the factorials by nitrogenous emissions the creation caused new the onegradient of depth profile of value the pH, differentiating in time, in ranges the interchangeable and clay buffered. The liming and mineral fertilization much increased this gradient.

Alojzy Kowalkowski, Halina Kopron
Dynamics of ecogeochemical soil proprieties in regenerating Pinus culture
[Dynamika ekochemicznych właściwości gleb w regeneracyjnej uprawie sosnowej]

The pine regeneration tillage was put in 1996, on after-forestal and industry wear soils, in 1,4 km NE distance from the large emitter. During institution of tillage, at ploughing up furrows, the structural building the ground surface and upper part soil profile was altered to depth of 40cm. The compensatory mineral fertilizations of Ca, Mg, K and P were executed also. The soil samples were taken with five depths to 45cm, in 28 deadlines in the early spring, summer and autumn times, since autumn 1995 till autumn 2004. On the basis of the gathered data, introduced in tab. 1-3 as well as on ryc. 1-6, introduced the profile of research object and laboratory methods, the ecochemical change and state of the rhizosphere layer in soil before the establishment of pine tillage, the ecochemical change in this layer after the establishment of pine tillage with regard to the times of year, the gradients of the easily variables components of soil in rhisosphere. Three developing phases of quantitatively - qualitative dynamics of the easily variables elements in lengthening periods of time were affirmed.

Marek Jóźwiak
Microclimate of the Raj cave of point of view monitoring research in the 1996-2005 year
[Mikroklimat jaskini Raj w świetle badań monitoringowych w latach 1996-2005]

Since 1996, in the cave are conducting monitoring researches, that have an aim to know microclimate the cave of “Raj” in the functioning period the cave, as tourist object and determine influence the tourist movement on their change (Jóźwiak 1997, 1998, 2002, Jóźwiak, Kozłowski 1999). Achieve results in 1996-2005, indicate that the average annual temperature in the cave of Raj amount to 8,5ºC and at relative humidity the air 95,1%. In the separate measurement points the temperature fluctuated from 8,5ºC in Gallery to 9,05ºC in Stalactite Chamber (tab. 1). The most stable part the cave is Gallery and  Brash Chamber (fig. 5,6), but the largest fluctuation temperature during the year are registering in Gallery and Entrée Chamber (fig. 7, 8). There are areas in which tourists appear as first. The highest average annual relative air humidity in the cave founded  in years 1999 - 98,9% and 1996 - 97,8%, the lowest in year 2005 - 88,9% and year 2002 - 93,0% (fig.9). The relative distribution air humidity in the cave, similarly as temperature, show diversity in the separate points. The highest values humidity was registered in years 1996-2005 in Shaft - 97,4%, with fluctuation from 96,4% in September to 96,4% in July and Entree Chamber-95,0% with fluctuation  from 92,2% in June to 96,0% in January and February, the lowest in Gallery - 90,0%, with fluctuation  from 87,6% in March to 91,6% in September and in Stalactite Chamber –92,7%, with fluctuation from 90,5% in March to 91,9% in September. Since 2001, in the cave are conducting also researches the contents CO2 in the air. In years 2001-2005 average concentration CO2 in the cave amount to 1478,11 mg*m-3, which is the lowest worth about 481,89 mg*m-3 from the upper limits the fresh air accepted by World Health Organisation. The largest average monthly concentration CO2 founded in June - 1813,31 mg*m-3, the lowest in March 999,97 mg*m-3. Beside natural occurrence, which have direct influence on the microclimate in the cave of Raj, facilities it to take advantage tourist, generates dynamics the microclimate and influence on organic life inside the cave. The most important is intensity the movement tourist. Together with increase quantity tourists, increase also the temperature and show the largest fluctuation in Gallery and Entree Chamber - the first tourists contact points with the cave.


Maciej Jóźwiak
Trade Emission Rights as Factor of Air Protection
[Handel uprawnieniami do emisji czynnikiem ochrony powietrza atmosferycznego]

Największym źródłem emisji zanieczyszczeń powietrza atmosferycznego są procesy wytwarzania energii, zarówno w wielkich elektrowniach, jak i w systemach zaopatrzenia w ciepło przemysłu oraz sektora komunalno-bytowego. Polska ratyfikując Konwencję Genewską i podpisując związane z nią protokoły, zobowiązała się do zmniejszenia emisji wielu substancji zanieczyszczających powietrze. Ich wypełnienie wiąże się z osiągnięciem określonej redukcji emisji w wyznaczonym terminie lub nie przekraczania w przyszłości określonej wielkości emisji, nawet przy założeniu wzrostu gospodarczego. Szczególny nacisk położony został na redukcję SO2, NO2 i NH3. W dyrektywie 2003/87/WE, której treść nierozerwalnie związana jest z Protokołem z Kioto (Protokół 1999), poza redukcją emisji gazów cieplarnianych Protokół dopuszcza również stosowanie tzw. mechanizmów elastyczności. Mechanizmy te są ułatwieniem dla stron Protokołu do wywiązywania się z założeń redukcyjnych w nim przyjętych. Do mechanizmów elastyczności należy handel jednostkami redukcji gazów cieplarnianych. Polska w grudniu 2004 roku uchwaliła ustawę o handlu uprawnieniami do emisji do powietrza gazów cieplarnianych i innych substancji. Ustawa ta weszła w życie z dniem 1 stycznia 2005.