Seria B - Nauki Przyrodnicze
Seria B - Natural Sciences


Elżbieta Buchcic
The natural science education during the so-called “green schools” as the possibility of improving the teaching – learning effectiveness
[Edukacja przyrodnicza w „zielonych szkołach” możliwością podwyższania skutecznościw nauczaniu – uczeniu się]
The so called “green schools” are the activities that take place outside schoolsand last for a few days. They are the activities, whose role becomes more significant in themodern process of education. It is an extremely valuable form of teaching and learningprocess because it enables to get to know the cultural scenery especially including natural,historical and aesthetical values. During such a process, the cognitive values are accompaniedby a process of shaping the desirable pro-ecological attitudes. They also enable toobtain the new information, to learn about different places, to gain the skill of independentlearning, to carry out the observations as well as to analyze them and to come to theconclusions on their basis.

Małgorzata Jóźwiak
Contribution to the recognision of lichens in Bellsund (SW Spitsbergen)
[Przyczynek do poznania lichenobioty Bellsundu (SW Spitsbergen)]
Lichens are a group of funguses that narrow down coexistence with symbioticcomponent – eukaryotic photobiont: Chlorophyceae representative (90%) or prokaryoticCyanophyta (10%). Coming into relationship and forming a complex physiological system isnamed lichenization, and taxa-lichens formed in such a way are lichenized funguses. Physiological feature of lichens is that they are biotopic pioneers. Their role as pioneering forms is of remarkable importance in polar regions where they enter areas exposed by melting glaciers. Lichen species list from Spitsbergen region was elaborated by Lynge (1938), Elvebakk Hertel (1996) and there is no information about any future attempts to verify or update it. Field research was performed during stay in Spitsbergen in August 2003 and 2007. Herbarium material was collected from the area in the west side of Calypsostranda. Lichenswere determined with classical taxonomic methods. Comparing the above lichen specieslist to the material collected in August 2003 and 2007 and determined allows to supplementthe list with 6 species, i.e. Cetraria delisei (de Bary ex Schaer) Kärnefelt & Thell, Cetrariahepatizon (Ach.) Vain, Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach, Flavocetraria nivalis (L.) Kärnefelt& Thell, Cetraria aculeata (Schreb.) Ach, Flavocetraria cucullata (Bellardi) Kärnefelt & Thell.

Marek Jóźwiak, Rafał kozłowski, Elżbieta Sykała
Spatial distribution carbon and nitrogen organic in the mineral horizon soil (0–10 cm) in the part central of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains
[Przestrzenny rozkład węgla i azotu w poziomie mineralnym gleb (0–10 cm) w centralnej części Gór Świętokrzyskich]

The research was led in the catchment of Base Station the Integrated EnvironmentMonitoring of Św. Krzyż which is located on the northern slope of Łysa Góra, in thecentral part of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, in the fir-beech forest ecosystem.The samples were taken from the humus level form of rusty podzolic pseudogley soil.According to the methodology proposed by Kowalkowski and at authors (2002), the centralpoints were species of trees which are characteristic for the typical forest ecosystem. Thesamples were taken from the depth 0–10 cm, along the lines led in 8 world directions. TheTree was the cardinal points, where the lines crossed. The distance of measurement pointsalong the line amount to 10, 50, 100 and 300 cm from the tree trunk.On Św. Krzyż the widest ratio C/N in the upper soils (0–10 cm) appears by the treestrunk and the places where is high contents of the organic matter. Data shows that thewidest C/N ratio occurs by of fir trunk 25, 6:1, in the distance 50 cm 17,1:1 and on the 300cm 19, 1:1, which indicates the slower mineralization of nitrogen.

Anna Rabajczyk
Methane clathrate stability versus the environment
[Stabilność klatratów metanu a środowisko]

Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide or water vapour are the most frequentlydiscussed when climate change issues are raised. However, nowadays methane,whose potential is 21 times higher than that of carbon dioxide, is more and more oftenmentioned. Methane clathrates also called methane hydrate are one of the emission sourcesof this gas. They occur in sea and oceanic sediments. These compounds are stable underspecific physicochemical conditions. A change of chemical composition of bottom deposit,aqueous solution surrounding clathrates or physical parameters like temperature and pressuremay cause destabilization of gas hydrate which results in methane rapid release towater and then to the atmosphere. Methane deposits in form of methane clathrate arousemixed emotions. There are hopes for obtaining huge amounts of “green fuel” as an alternativeto petroleum or natural gas, on the other hand they arouse anxiety of climate hazardthus hazard for Earth’s life.

Przemysław Rybiński, Grażyna Janowska
Combustibility of nitrile rubbers
[Palność kauczuków butadienowo-akrylonitrylowych]

The paper discusses the test results of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber PerbunanNT 1845 and Perbunan NT 3945 flammability and properties that characterise theseelastomers under fire conditions. The flammability was tested by means of oxygen indexand thermovision methods. The thorough testing of flammability performed by means ofa cone calorimeter made it possible to assess the behaviour of these polymers under fireconditions. The following properties of the tested copolymers were taken into account inthis assessment: ignitability, heat release during combustion, smoke-forming capabilityand toxicity of the gaseous products of thermal decomposition and combustion. It hasbeen found that the increase in the acrylonitrile unit content in the copolymer decreasesits flammability and the relative toxic fire hazard, but clearly increases the smoke-formingcapability and so the specific extinction area.

Joanna Rymarczyk
Nanocomposite materials – thermal properties and application for hydrogen detectors
[Własności termiczne materiałów nanokompozytowych i ich zastosowanie w detektorach]

Interest in construction of new ecological (in meaning of ecological materials)detectors of gases and liquids arises in last years. Now researchers are looking for a solutionfor construction of detector which enables for faster detection and posses’ high sensitivity.The important feature of such detector should be its multi function. The interest innanomaterials application in electronic devices grows in results of miniaturization andtechnical development.Nanostructural films containing palladium nanograins synthesized in Tele & RadioResearch Institute can be applied as active layer in hydrogen detector. Due to a complicatedmethod of study of such nanostructural materials a mathematical modeling is often usedfor predictions of some properties of these materials. In this paper the structural model ofthe construction of film composed of palladium nanograins embedded in carbonaceousmatrix was prepared on a base of previously obtained results of structural studies. Grateto these modeling the thermal properties of such film could be predicted. The modelingwas done with Finite Element Method and ANSYS program (Ansys, Inc). The effects connectedto convection at different temperature and their influences on temperature gradientin film volume were studied. The results of this modeling study showed in the places of Pdnanograins location the biggest temperature gradient. This effect is important because ofits consequences connected to the film damage due to stress creation. This effect should betaken into consideration while the film is used in high temperature gas detectors. Stanisław Sala A few problem climate change on the world Wybrane problemy zmian klimatu na świecieSummary. This article presents a few problems caused by the change of the climate in theworld which are an inherent part of the earth history. In the Paleozoic era there were twoglacial cycles. Thirst cycle occured in the Carelian period while second glacial cycle tookplace in wend period. Era Glacial cycles were in the next eras such as Mesozoic, Paleozoic.Warm periods separated hot periods. Nowadays greenhouse effect has been considered tobe the main reason for changing climate. The main problem of the change of the climate isthe role of CO2, NH4, in it. Besides, it is not known in what way the climate has influancedthe changes in earth solar activity, speed rotary, cosmic dust, spreading bottom ocean,volcanic eruption, orogenic processes and changes in the earth pole.

Mirosław Szwed
Ecological conditions of small retention in the upper valley of the Bobrza River
[Ekologiczne uwarunkowania małej retencji górnej Bobrzy]

The paper presents very simple and useful methods of water researches in smallcatchments for define ecological conditions of small retention. For several dozens of yearssome unfavourable processes, like: drying out of lands, decreases of ground water levelsand high variations in river flows have taken place in the upper catchments of the Bobrzariver (Burchard 1978, Prażak 1991). Significant changes in a surface water level causeda larger exploitation of underground waters in the Zagnańsk intake water. When in 1974Kielce started water uptake from the underground Triassic reservoir, a successive processof drying out of the Bobrza river and its tributaries took place in the area of the waterintake. In order to improve a water balance in the mentioned area some actions have beenundertaken within a project “Small retention of the Swietokrzyskie Province” carried outby the Swietokrzyski Office of Meliorations and Water Appliances (1999). The programaims at increasing a time and way of water circulation in river catchments by storingthe water in water reservoirs. It will bring changes from a fast surface outflow to a slowground outflow (Dziewoński 1973, Mioduszewski 1997). The positive project results canbring many changes in natural and social environments of the upper valley of the Bobrzariver. By the other side dirty water in reservoirs can be danger for water organism. It wouldbe a cause of eutrophication of natural water, increased temperature of surface water andsilting reservoirs.

Emilia Walczyk
Materials to the knowledge of true bugs (Heteroptera) “Miedzianka Hill” nature reserve (Chęcińsko-Kielecki Landscape Park)
[Materiały do znajomości pluskwiaków różnoskrzydłych (Heteroptera) rezerwatu „Miedzianka” (Chęcińsko-Kielecki Park Krajobrazowy)]

“Miedzianka Hill” is a calcareous rise situated in the west part of theŚwiętokrzyskie Mountain region. This area is overgrown with a xerothermal grasslandsand shrubs of classes Festuco – Brometea, Trifolio – Geranitea sanguinei and Rhamno –Prunetea. Bugs fauna was studied in two consecutive years: 2007 and 2008. Insects werecollected with an entomological net in open habitats from four stands. Altogether 90species and 3233 individuals were found (tab. 1). In regard of abundance Ortholomuspunctipennis, Coptosoma scutellatum and Adelphocoris lineolatus were the most numerousspecies. A lot of species noted here were related to warm, calcareous habitats. Among themthe most interesting due to rarity are: Halticus luteicollis, Polymerous asperulae, Cydnusaterrimus, Lygaeus equestris and Rubiconia intermedia. Stanisław K. WiąckowskiInvestigations on insect parasitoidsfrom the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera)Z badań nad parazytoidami z rodziny męczelkowatych (Hymymenoptera, Braconidae)Summary. Presented paper concerns Polish investigations on insect parasitoids from thefamily Braconidae (Hymenoptera). The first part of the paper deals with taxonomic characteristicand Polish papers on biology, ecology and host parasitoid relations are discussed.Many species from this family were utilized in biological control of insect pests in bothPoland and foreign countries. The paper is based on 165 most important Polish papers onthis subject.

Ilona Żeber-Dzikowska
Edukacja regionalna w praktyce szkolnej inspiracją dla ucznia szkoły ponadgimnazjalnej
[The regional education in school practice as the inspiration for high school students]

The aim of the regional education in the didactic and educational process is tocreate the feeling of students’ own regional identities. The regional identity is understoodhere as the attitude towards the dedication to their own environment functioning as wellas the authentic openness towards different societies and the cultures.As the result of educational reform at schools, the necessity of introducing differenteducational paths, e.g. the regional one appears. Their realization should be the addition ofknowledge in this field. The regional education in school practice should be the inspirationfor the teachers and students so as to improve their interests, to effort and to introduce thechanges. Therefore, they have the fundamental educational significance.In 2005 in order to get the students’ opinion on the subject of the so-called ‘regionalpaths’ the research in the area of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski administrative district was conducted.Six high school participated in the research. 514 students filled in questionnairesspecially prepared for the research.Therefore, no matter how long the regional education is present at schools (in manyschools for a long time), do the teachers realize the lack of special instructive and methodologicalhelp as well as the appropriate material – publications dealing with the region,illustrative material, etc.

Monika Żelezik
Why ecological agriculture?
[Dlaczego rolnictwo ekologiczne?]

In recent years ecological agriculture meets with wider social approval in theworld. Also in Poland it is being observed its very dynamic development despite that thissystem of management is on its initial stage of development. Undoubtedly it is influencedby noticeable crisis of food safety and also care of one’s health. These circumstances moreoften induce consumers to search for food of guaranteed quality. The system of ecologicalagriculture takes into consideration these needs and produces food of higher nourishingand healthcare virtues. The products are not contaminated with rests of agrochemicalmeans in comparison with these of conventional agriculture. Ecological households notonly produce high quality food but also take care of quality of the environment they existin. It requires large expenditure of work good organization and first of all constantlydeepened knowledge. That is why ecological agriculture will not play an important rolein agricultural production but it can be an interesting trend of development for somehouseholds groups.