Soil erosion in the agroecosystems and possibilities of monitoring
[Erozja gleby w agroekosystemie i możliwości jej monitoringu]
Małgorzata Anna Jóźwiak, Marek Jóźwiak, Mirosław Szwed
Methods of the transplant of lichens applied in atmospheric air biomonitoring
[Metody transplantacji porostów stosowane w biomonitoringu powietrza atmosferycznego]
Lichens are the most popular bioindicators. They have been used to determine the cleanliness of the air in many different parts of the world for many years (Sloof,
1995; Gonzales i wsp., 1998; Conti, 2001; 2004, Budka i wsp., 2002; Carreras, Pignata, 2002; Poličnik i wsp., 2004, Godinho i wsp., 2004, Białońska, 2005). They
are also used to control the level of such pollutants as PM 10 dust and PM 2,5 and PAH, sulphur oxide and heavy metals. Both their unique ability to accumulate pollution in the depth of thallus and the fact that they grow in many different places in the word are decisive in this matter. One of the methods of using lichens in bomonitoring is transplantation of native species from places with low level of pollution (national parks, countryside with their natural landscape) to places where lichens are not present in natural amounts (lichen deserts) or their population is limited to a great extend because of pollution caused by human beings (Szczepaniak, Bziuk, 2003). Chemical analysis of accumulated pollutants in
lichen thallus is carried out with the use of ASA PHILIPS PU 9100X and the possibility of transplantation allows direct estimation of environment conditions in a given location.
Rafał Kozłowski, Małgorzata Anna Jóźwiak, Emilia Borowska
Comparison of selected methods for calculation of stemflow volume
[Porównanie wybranych metod do obliczania wysokości opadu spływającego po pniach drzew]
Forest ecosystems are a significant chain element in the water circulation system between the atmosphere and the pedosphere. The forest bottom is reached by atmospheric precipitation in the forms of throughfall and stemflow. The conducted result analysis of the atmospheric precipitation flowing down fir-tree trunks,
with the use of selected methods for the conversion of precipitation volume flowing down fir-tree (Abies alba Mill.) trunks into mm of precipitation has enabled the conclusion that the most similar results may be obtained with the method which relies on the calculation of crown area of the studied trees and the method which relies on the determination of the trunk lateral area. The method which requires the calculation of the crown projection area includes only the studied trees which results in a smaller calculation error. However, the method which relies on the comparison of the firtree arrow trunk to a solid of revolution may show an increase in precipitation volume due to underestimation of the diversified area of the fir-tree trunk. Differences in water amounts reaching the forest soil along tree trunks are a consequence of diversification of biometric properties, mainly the tree trunk circumference. Among all the measured parameters, this property is characterised by the highest regression coefficient.
Apart from the features of the tree itself (circumference, height, crown area or trunk morphology), stemflow volume reaching the substratum is affected by factors
such as precipitation total, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity.
Paweł Dudzik, Katarzyna Sawicka-Kapusta, Renata Tybik, Konrad Pacwa
Assessment of environmental pollution by metals, sulphure dioxide and nitrogen
in Wolinski National Park
[Ocena stopnia zanieczyszczenia środowiska Wolińskiego Parku Narodowego metalami, dwutlenkiem siarki i azotem]
The assessment of environmental pollution in Wolinski National Park was taken place in the period of 2005-2006. Heavy metals accumulation (Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn)
and sulphure dioxide were estimated in Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl . Lichens were collected from 21 points in October 2005. One of the materials which was taken into research was litter fall and leaves from trees choosen as bioindicators: Quercus petraea L./Quercus robur L., Fagus sylvatica L. and Pinus sylvestris L. Research territory was divided into three area (Grodno, Wisełka, Wapnica). On each of them there were picketed 5 litter traps from October until November 2005.
Concentration of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na, N, S was assessed after leaves collection. There was also calculated litter fall. Based on metal concentration in
leaves we estimated the metal supply into the bottom of the forest. Low concentration of the researched metals in trees leaves indicate low air pollution in Wolinski National Park. The higher contamination was indicated in case of sulphure dioxide. None of the researched bioindicators showed exceed of either physiological or natural level of concentration. Concentration of Pb was the same in the case of each bioindicator species. Furthermore, the best accumulator were pine needles. The fall of sulphure and nitrogen into the bottom of the forest
is lower than fall in Ratanica catchment in 90’s and it is not threaten decomposition process in Wolinski National Park. On the base input of heavy metals to the forest floor there was affirmed that Wolinski National Park is unpolluted.
Marek Jóźwiak, Krzysztof Jarzyna, Rafał Kozłowski, Mirosław Szwed
The course, reasons and environmental effects of a 2006 extreme weather phenomenon in the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mts.
[Przebieg, przyczyny i skutki środowiskowe ekstremalnego zdarzenia pogodowego w Górach Świętokrzyskich w 2006 roku]
The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report points to several trends pertaining to changes in the frequency of occurrence, intensity and scope of extreme weather phenomena
in the second half of the 20th century. Increasing threats from extreme weather phenomena to the functioning of the natural environment and human communities make recording and forecasting these phenomena a key task. The paper, basing on the data from two weather stations (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – IMGW; Integrated Natural Environment Monitoring System at Święty Krzyż), presents
weather courses in July 2006: the year characterised by extreme thermal and precipitation conditions, unique in a multi-year period. Environmental effects thereof have been presented, and the reasons for this extreme weather phenomenon have been diagnosed. It has been found that in July 2006 occurred two high temperature periods: the turn of the second July decade and the third July decade. Diurnal air temperature amplitudes were relatively high, reaching 14°C. At the
same time, only four days with precipitation of diurnal total not exceeding 1 mm were recorded. As a result, the lowest ever river stages at several river gauging
stations located in the rivers draining the Łysogórskie Range occurred. In addition, the meteorological drought caused increased fire hazard in the forests.
Maria A. Ibraeva, Azimbay Otarov, Bogusław Wiłkomirski, Małgorzata Suska-Malawska
Humus level in soils of Southern Kazakhstan irrigated massifs and their statistical characteristics
[Poziom humusu w glebach nawadnianych masywów południowego Kazachstanu – charakterystyka statystyczna]
Rozwój intensywnego nawadniania gruntów rolnych w suchych rejonach południowego Kazachstanu, który rozpoczął się w Związku Radzieckim w latach sześćdziesiątych ubiegłego stulecia, spowodował nie tylko wzrost zasolenia gleb, ale także ich dehumifikację. Proces dehumifikacji został stwierdzony we wszystkich gruntach rolnych, jednak w południowym Kazachstanie, gdzie sektor rolniczy ma kluczowe
znaczenie, jest szczególnie istotny. W celu opracowania odpowiednich działań zapobiegawczych został określony poziom substancji humusowych w glebach
dwóch terenów położonych w południowym Kazachstanie, tzn. na obszarze Masywu Akdalińskiego (Am) i Masywu Shilińskiego (Sm). Uzyskane wyniki zostały opracowane statystycznie. Gleba obu masywów charakteryzuje się niskim poziomem humusu całkowitego (odpowiednio 1,28 ± 0,136% w Am i 1,46 ± 0,191% w Sm). Zaobserwowano zróżnicowany poziom rozpuszczalnych w wodzie form humusu. Wyższy poziom takich substancji stwierdzono w glebach Am (0,006 ± 0,0007%), niższy w glebach Sm (0,003 ±0,0002%). Gleby Am wykazują wyższy stopień rozpuszczalności humusu (0,51 ± 0,062%, podczas gdy gleby Sm charakteryzują ponaddwukrotnie niższe wartości
(0,24 ± 0,022%). Oznaczono także zawartość azotu w humusie badanych gleb. Gleby krócej nawadnianego obszaru Am charakteryzowały się niższym udziałem azotu w strukturach humusowych (5,6 ± 0,24%),podczas gdy wysycenie humusu azotem w glebach Sm osiągało poziom 6,8 ± 0,40%. Przedstawione wyniki pozwalają na stwierdzenie bardzo niskiej zawartości humusu w glebach badanych terenów. Spadek zawartości humusu powoduje pogorszenie żyzności gleby, jak również zmniejszenie jej zdolności buforowej, co wpływa negatywnie na wysokość plonów. Zatem ocena aktualnego poziomu humusu w nawadnianych glebach jest istotnym zadaniem ekologii i gleboznawstwa. W przypadku zbyt intensywnej dehumifikacji należy podejmować pilne działania w celu podniesienia poziomu humusu.
Katarzyna Sawicka-Kapusta, Marta Zakrzewska, Gabriela Bydłoń, Joanna Hajduk
Estimation of air pollution in the base stations of the integrated nature monitoring system by heavy metals and sulphur dioxide in 2001–2009 using lichen Hypogymnia physodes
[Ocena zanieczyszczenia powietrza Stacji Bazowych ZMŚP metalami ciężkimi i dwutlenkiem siarki w latach 20010–2009 z wykorzystaniem porostu Hypogymnia physodes]
Air pollution by heavy metals and sulphur dioxide in the Base Stations of the Integrated Nature Monitoring System was estimated using the lichen Hypogymnia
physodes (L.) Nyl. as a bioindicator. In July 2009 lichen samples from the natural environment were collected in seven Base Stations (Biała Góra, Storkowo, Puszcza Borecka, Wigry, Pożary, Św. Krzyż, Szymbark). In the lichen samples were determined the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Cr) using the AAS method and the concentrations of sulphur using the turbidimetric Butters-Chenry’s method. Different air contamination by heavy metals and SO2 in the investigated Base Stations was found. Similar highest cadmium concentrations were determined in Św. Krzyż, Szymbark and Pożary Base Stations, the lowest in Biała Góra Base Station. The highest lead concentrations were found in the South of Poland in Św. Krzyż and Szymbark, the lowest in Storkowo and Wigry. Copper contamination was similar in all Base Station with exception for Storkowo, where the highest level was noticed. Low zinc concentrations were found in the North of the country, the lowest in Biała Góra and Puszcza Borecka. Generally in the North of the country were determined lower heavy metals concentrations, and in the South higher one. Only in two Base Stations (Puszcza Borecka and Wigry) located on the North the lowest SO2 air pollution was found. It was much higher in the rest of the investigated Base Stations. Air contamination by lead and iron in all Base Stations was reduced in 2009 comparing to 2001. Although the sulphur concentration in lichens was lower when compare to the previous time, only two Base Stations
(Puszcza Borecka and Wigry) belong to the clean one. Stations located in the South of Poland (Pożary, Św. Krzyż, Szymbark) are still contaminated by sulphur dioxide.
Jacek Tylkowski, Mariusz Samołyk
Monitoring of physicochemical properities of the Wolin Island snow cover
[Monitoring fizykochemicznych właściwości pokrywy śnieżnej wyspy Wolin]
The main research concern of the study is related to the time and spatial variability of snow cover on the Wolin island in a cool half-year in the hydrological years of 2009 and 2010. The study of snow cover included measurements of: thickness and scope of area cover, volume density, electrolytic conductance and reaction. Time variability of physicochemical properties of snow cover was analysed on the basis of observations carried out in the weather station in Biała Góra. Spatial variability of snow cover was studied on the basis of a single area mapping on the Wolin island, when 27 samples were collected from sites referring to various forms of land use and its relief.
Changes in the relations between conductivity and water temperature in the Ropa river caused by the functioning of the Klimkówka reservoir
[Zmiany w relacjach pomiędzy konduktywnością a temperaturą wody w Ropie wywołane funkcjonowaniem zbiornika retencyjnego Klimkówka]
After construction the Klimkówka water reservoir on the Ropa river in 1994 in the Beskid Niski Mts, natural relations between conductivity and temperature of water in the river have distorted significantly. The manifestation of these changes is weakness and reversal of relations (especially visible during the summer period). Before the Klimkówka reservoir started working, testing relations between conductivity and temperature of water in the Ropa river were directly proportional
and their correlation was high. After opening the reservoir this relations are inversely proportional, and the strength of correlation is clearly weaker. Observed changes caused by the reduction and stabilization of values, as well as the transformation of the annual cycle of water conductivity in the Ropa river below the reservoir are associated with its functioning. Survey of correlation between conductivity and temperature of water in the Ropa river in this article, based on the comparison of correlation coefficients calculated for different terms, between 1982–1993 (period before the Klimkówka reservoir started working) and 1994–2005 (after opening the reservoir).
The eco-education of the youth in gymnasiums and high schools in Poland
[Ekoedukacja młodzieży gimnazjalnej i ponadgimnazjalnej w Polsce]
Many educators believe that the form of the 45-minute classes results in a lack of the realism and the difficulty in acquiring the skills and techniques that are fundamental in distinguishing the natural environment. The students’ attitude towards the idea of the eco-education itself is especially important in this sphere. Such issues were the inspiration to carry out the research among
the students from gymnasiums and high schools in order to diagnose the effectiveness of the methods so as to realize the goals of the environmental education. Students involved in the study showed, however, the great overview of the problems caused by the harmful influence of the human, nevertheless, in many cases such knowledge was not reflected in their behaviours. Therefore, the changes in the education must be considered so as to introduce the environmental education
to the syllabuses of the preliminary classes. Children at this age are extremely curious and interested in the world, therefore, the information should be established in the simplest and the most attractive form. The skills that are acquired by them will result in the better human-nature relation in the future.