Natural Environment Monitoring



Alojzy Kowalkowski
The possibilities to make use of the Integrated Natural Environment Monitoring datas on the implementation of the Integrated Management System

[Możliwości wykorzystania danych Zintegrowanego Monitoringu Środowiska Przyrodniczego we wdrażaniu Zintegrowanego Systemu Zarządzania]

The aim of this article is to present new ideas in the development of the management of organizations as a system of continuous innovations in an integrated Quality, Environment, Safety and Hygiene of Work Management System. The need of innovations has been shown, specifically in the management system. The functioning of an Integrated Monitoring of Natural Environment System as a source af data has been presented, based on it’s 15 years development. This system is capable of presenting all needed data to all government, or communal organizations, with appropriate analysis. This system has vital signifficance for the proper development of the country.

Anna Rabajczyk, Małgorzata Anna Jóźwiak
The possibilities of using macrophytes as bioindicators of heavy metals occurring in sediments
[Możliwości wykorzystania makrofitów jako bioindykatorów metali ciężkich zdeponowanych w osadach dennych]

The Water Framework Directive introduced a new approach to evaluation and classification of waters including surface ones by defining an ecological condition. According to the Water Framework Directive, physiochemical and hydromorphological criteria play
only supporting role in ecological condition determination, while emphasis is placed on use of biological criteria.


Ryszard Świetlik, Marzena Trojanowska
Chemical fractionation methods used in environmental studies

[Metody frakcjonowania chemicznego stosowane w badaniach środowiskowych
Trace metals in environmental solid samples may exist in different chemical forms or ways of binding. It is now widely recognized that the toxicity and the mobility of metals depend strongly on their specific chemical forms and physical phases. In environmental studies the determination of different species gives more information on trace metal mobility, as well as on their availability or toxicity in comparison with the total element content. Sequential extraction techniques are commonly used to chemical fractionation the solid-phase forms of metals in environmental samples. Many sequential extraction procedures have been developed for different solid samples (sediments, soils, sludge) and, despite numerous criticism, they remain very useful in environmental studies. The choice of procedure must be related to a definite objective, taking into account the nature of the sample.
This article reviews the methods used to chemical fractionation of metals in different environmental solid samples. Quantification of main phases associations of trace elements in soils and sediments helps in understanding geochemical processes in order to evaluate the remobilization potential and the risk induced.


Anna Andrzejewska, Adam Olszewski
Immission of SO2, NO2 and O3 to Integrated Monitoring Base Station “Pożary” on ground of automatic measurements provided by Voivodship Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Warsaw in 2004-2007
[Imisja SO2, NO2 i O3 na terenie Stacji Bazowej „Pożary” na podstawie pomiarów automatycznych Mazowieckiego Wojewódzkiego Inspektoratu Ochrony Środowiska w latach 2004-2007]
Automatic measurements of air pollution are provided on The Integrated Monitoring Base Station “Pożary” in Granica village since 2004. Concentration of SO2, NO2, O3 and meteorological parameters are measured hourly. Gases concentration were analized according to their dependance on air temperature, wind speed and direction and time of the day. The grow of SO2 and NO2 with decrease of temperature is evident. Higher concentrations of SO2 and NO2 during low wind speed indicate comparatively close emmission sources.

Witold Bochenek, Marek Jóźwiak, Małgorzata Kijowska, Rafał Kozłowski
Differentiation of throughfall in select sylvan ecosystems in Świętokrzyskie Mountains and Low Beskids

[Zróżnicowanie opadu podkoronowego w wybranych ekosystemach leśnych w Górach Świętokrzyskich i w Beskidzie Niskim]

Physiochemical properties and chemistry of atmospheric precipitation being influenced by air pollution are key elements contributing to present degradation of natural environment. The purpose of this study is to present spatial diversity of throughfall in sylvan ecosystem of Świętokrzyskie Mountains and Low Beskids. The measurements of physiochemical properties (pH, SEC) of throughfall were performed in 7-day cycle during research in the field.
It was observed that in fir-stand and spruce-stand a versatile
transformation of chemical properties of water penetrating tree-crowns takes place which is caused by the age of the trees forming a beech-stand and morphological features of tree-crowns of both species. Horizontal distribution of rainfall contributes to diversity
of physiochemical properties of water of throughfall. Their high frequency in Świętokrzyskie Mountains forms properties of water of throughfall beneath firs. No similar effect is observed in spruce-stand in Low Beskids.

Andrzej Harat, Arnošt Grmela
Impact of mine water from The Upper Silesian Coal Basin areas on change quality of water in Olza river in years 2000–2007

[Wpływ wód kopalnianych Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego na zmiany jakości wody w rzece Olza w latach 2000–2007]
In the following article, the assessment of mine water from USCB area on the change of water quality in Olza river in years 2000-2007 was presented. The impact in this field is confirmed by surface water tests in Poland and Czech Republic. Presented activity is also a great example of long-term and fruitful cooperation between neighboring countries which comes from international agreement in terms of environmental monitoring. Presented data were obtained from Povodi Odry and WIOS.

Andrzej Jaguś
Qualitative changes of soil water outflows in the conditions of reduced range of fertilizers (on an example of grasslands located in the mountainous area
[Zmiany jakościowe odpływów wód glebowych w warunkach recesji gospodarki nawozowej (na przykładzie górskich użytków zielonych]

The article presents the qualitative assessment of soil water outflows leaving the grasslands located in the mountainous area (Polish Carpathians). The area taken into consideration was enriched by varied amounts of fertilizers. The research project was based on lysimetric and draining water analyses. It was established that reduced amounts of fertilizers caused a subsequent decrease in most soil macro-compounds. However, their concentrations remain in safe levels, which do not pose a threat to the environment.

Katarzyna Sawicka-Kapusta, Marta Zakrzewska, Gabriela Bydłoń, Anna Pizło, Agnieszka Marek
Air pollution in the Base Stations of the Integrated Nature Monitoring System on the base of heavy metals and sulphur concentrations in lichen Hypogymnia physodes in 2007
[Zanieczyszczenie powietrza na terenie Stacji Bazowych ZMŚP w 2007 roku na podstawie koncentracji metali ciężkich i siarki w plechach porostu Hypogymnia physodes]
In 2007 air pollution by heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe Cr, Ni) and SO2 in the Base Station of Integrated Nature Monitoring System was estimated using lichen Hypogymnia physodes as bioindicator. In July 2007 lichen samples from natural environment were
collected in six Base Stations (Puszcza Borecka, Wigry, Storkowo, Pożary, Św.Krzyż, Szymbark). During winter season 2006/2007 and summer season 2007 lichens Hypogymnia physodes were transplanted for six months to three Base Stations (Koniczynka, Św. Krzyż, Szymbark). Different air pollution of the Base Stations were found. The lowest concentrations of the most of analysed heavy metals were found in Storkowo and Wigry Base Station. A high concentration of cadmium and lead, higher than in 2005, were found in lichen collected in Puszcza Borecka. Base Stations located in central and southern part of Poland had higher concentrations of heavy metals mainly cadmium lead and iron than those from the North of the country. In the all Base Stations high concentrations of sulphur were found which confirm air contamination by sulphur dioxide. No statistical differences in metals and sulphur accumulation in transplanted lichens between winter 2006/2007 and summer 2007 seasons were found. It shows no impact of heating season on air contamination in winter 2006/2007.

Franciszek Woch
Soil protection from erosion in countryside development in Poland
[Ochrona gleb przed erozją realizowana w Polsce w procesie urządzania obszarów wiejskich]

In the article, polish and european activities focused on rural areas development and environment modeling have been compared and analyzed. It has been stated, that in Poland, fundamental process of land modeling is still land consolidation, but in EU - complex rural areas rearrangement (based on the land consolidation). So far, carried on in Poland land consolidation has made bad influence on agricultural environment in of soil erosion. For eliminating this disadvantageous impact, additional activities should be introduced, like antierosion melioration, aforestation, land recultivation or creating biotops.
In the article analyzed organizations (land arrangement) metod environment of soil erosion between in Poland (arrangement of agricultural road end border of a ground, transformations of land with adaptation to natural conditions - land afforestation end green lands allocation, protection antierosion afforestation, hydromeliorations with reconstruction of water level, ecological areas allocation).


Maciej Jóźwiak, Krzysztof Wierzbowski
System of Guarantees of Origin of Electricity from Renewable Sources
[System gwarancji pochodzenia energii elektrycznej ze źródeł odnawialnych]

The article presents fundamental Polish and EU legal acts and strategic documents. The analysis of the regulation shows the consecutive stages of action taken by the European community and Polish government aimed on the implementation effective methods of production electricity from renewable sources. During the analysis the author begins with the documents created in 1994 and ends with the perspectives and plans for development of energy renewable sources till 2017.