Sustainable protection of biodiversity in central Poland – thoughts regarding a future model (‘leitbild’) for the development of traditional agricultural landscapes
[Trwała ochrona bioróżnorodnooeci w Polsce Środkowej – podstawy modelu rozwoju tradycyjnych krajobrazów rolniczych]
This paper deals with the basic aspects of the far-reaching changes in the agricultural landscapes of Central Europe over the course of time, and specifically with the impact on biodiversity brought about by the transformation process after Poland became a member of the EU. A method for ecological landscape analysis as a basis for sustainable landscape development is described. The main controls on biodiversity in agricultural landscapes are the diversity of land use types (structure of agricultural land use, types of farming, boundary line density) and the diversity of sites (soil nutrient and water balance, potential yield). The agricultural landscape of Central Poland is characterized by a medium to high phytodiversity as a whole. There are considerable differences in species diversity caused by the type of land use. The basis for the political decisions and planning acts to protect biodiversity and historical landscape structures of Central Poland are mainly: (1) the site factors, (2) the structure of the elements of the historical agricultural landscape, (3) the intensity of land use as well as (4) the profitability of the land use types. The following principal aspects should be considered concerning the protection of biodiversity and historical landscape structures in the agricultural landscape of Central Poland: (1) sustainable nature and landscape conservation are only useful as well as possible within sustainable farming, (2) nature and landscape conservation services managed by farmers must be financially supported by the public administration and (3) the intensity of land use has to be related to the site factors.
The possibilities of using analysis of metal forms occurring in surface waters in environmental monitoring
[Możliwości wykorzystania analizy form metali ciężkich występujących w wodach powierzchniowych w monitoringu środowiska]
Water cycle and a fact that water is a very good solvent cause that water does not occur in nature as a chemically pure compound made of oxygen and hydrogen but it is a very diluted solution of salts, acids, bases and gases. Colloidal compounds and suspensions are present in water together with substances diluted in water. Water contains almost all natural substances occurring in Earth’s crust or admixtures and anthropogenic substances or pollutants. Amount and types of substances in natural waters may vary and they depend on their universally occurring in given environment, solubility and physicochemical processes shaping the transformations. Chemical composition of rivers, lakes and ground water changes significantly under the influence of natural factors such as chemistry of elements, weathering conditions or biological processes, and as well as a result of human activity. When performing environmental monitoring of tested ecosystem, in order to gather complete information, all ecosystem components have to be analysed. Field research including location and evaluation of research area with regard to geological aspect as well as land development should be taken into account as well as field and laboratory analysis including analyte forms in different environmental samples. The introduction of the metals adsorbed on suspension matter or other solid particles analysis into procedure of metal analysis in water is necessity and gives the possibility of receives information about concentration of metal forms.
Hydrological polar monitoring - methodical proposition
[Polarny monitoring hydrologiczny - propozycja metodyczna]
The paper presents a suggested set of standardized methods of hydrological monitoring for glaciated and non-glaciated catchments in the polar areas of the northern and southern hemispheres. Standardization of methods employed in national and international research projects is intended to ensure a better understanding of geomorphic processes within polar catchments and to provide a basis for comparative studies. The recommended methods were used successfully on Spitsbergen during the 2005-2007 research campaigns and on King George Island during the summer of 2007. They are compatible with the accepted monitoring methods employed in the SEDIFLUX, SEDIBUD and ITEX projects as well as in the Integrated Monitoring of the Natural Environment (IM, ZMOEP).
Witold Bochenek, Eugeniusz Gil
Role of selected meteorological and hydrological factors in shaping of electric conductivity and ph-reaction of throughflow soil water in the Bystrzanka basin (1999-2005)
[Rola wybranych czynników meteorologicznych i hydrologicznych w kształtowaniu przewodności elektrolitycznej właściwej i odczynu wody spływu śródglebowego w zlewni Bystrzanki (lata 1999-2005)]
This paper shows the issue of electric conductivity [SEC] and ph-reaction changes in throughflowwater to 1meter deep on foothill flysch slope in the Bystrzanka basin. An influence of exchanged properties was being analysed in rain water and intensity of the flow and the period from finishing the last incident for developing of the electric conductivity and the ph-reaction in throughflow-waters.
Accumulation of heavy metals and morphological changes in thalli of Hypogymnia physodes (l.) Nyl. Lichen
[Kumulacja metali ciężkich i zmiany morfologiczne w plechach porostu Hypogymnia physodes (l.) Nyl.]
Specific response of organisms to changes in environment is named biomonitoring, and organisms sensitive to these changes are called bioindicators. Thanks to regular tracking of biotests, chemical and macroscopic analyses, data on qualitative changes of ecological systems are obtained. Characteristic constitution and physiology of lichens qualify these organisms to be used in biomonitoring research. The most important lichen features, which are of primary importance, are as follows: ability to absorb pollution on the whole external structure of thallus due to lack of surface protective layer, moisture uptake from the atmosphere together with pollutants deposited on dust particles, year-round continuous vegetation and environmental eurytopicity. Research on environmental pollution by heavy metals in Kielce was carried out in 2006. Grafting of Hypogymnia physodes (L) Nyl. Lichen thallia was done in quarterly cycles in selected stands in the city. Grafted lichen thallia were taken from standard clean regions of Northeast Poland (Borecka Forest), and then placed on tree trunks close to research stands. Chemical analysis of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Fe, Cd, Zn) was performed in “0” sample before exposure, and then another one after 3-month impact of biotopic factors. During macroscopic research, thallus structure was examined using stereoscopic microscope and type of occurring changes (dye penetration, thallus shape, damages of structure on thallus surface) were determined. Results and their evaluation showed that average concentration of tested metals in 2006 in Kielce amounted to 58,87 mg•kg-1 d.w., and reached the highest average values in IV quarter (61,30 mg•kg-1d.w). From all tested metals the highest concentration was noticed for iron (annual average of 153,81 mg•kg-1 d.w.) And for lead (annual average of 52,82 mg•kg-1 d.w.), while the lowest concentration was detected for cadmium (Cd) – fig. 8. Morphological changes of Hypogymnia physodes thallus structure are displayed as colour changes (whitening, browning, blacking) – photo. 3, and severe damage of morphological structure that is characteristic for systematic features of this species (radial greengray rosettes) into spalling, necrotic, brittle and curled thallia come off substratum (photo. 1, 4).
The variability of chemical composition in water circulation in Lake Gardno catchment on the Wolin Island in 1997-2005
[Zmienność składu chemicznego w systemie obiegu wody w zlewni jeziora Gardno na wyspie Wolin w okresie 1997-2005]
The variability of chemical composition in water circulation in Lake Gardno catchment on the Wolin Island in 1997-2005 years shows that the result of a physico-chemical transformation of precipitation in the canopy of beech trees, the rainfall is enriched in most of the ions. The loads of hydrogen ions reaching the forest floor show variability correlated with the vegetation season. With the start of the beech growing season in April, the adsorption of hydrogen ions can be observed. The buffering ability of assimilation organs persists throughout the entire season, reducing the number of protons reaching the forest floor even by 99%. The effect is a substantial enrichment of water solutions getting to this part of the forest in potassium, calcium and magnesium loads. The volume of proton loads delivered to the forest floor in the non-growing season is more than 16 times greater. The Mineralization of water circulation in Lake Gardno catchment is lowest in the precipitation (14,5 g •dm-3). In biosphere reaches 37,2 mg •dm-3 (throughfall and stemflow). In lithosphere reaches over 300 mg •dm-3 (inflow, surface waters, and groundwaters on the two Levels).
Alojzy Kowalkowski, Marek Jóźwiak
Temporary variability of the organic matter fall in fir-beech stands in years 1994-2006 on the main massif of Łysogóry
[Czasowa zmienność opadu organicznego w drzewostanach jodłowo-bukowych w latach 1994-2006 na głównym masywie Łysogór]
In the years 1994-2006, within a framework of integrated monitoring, research on dynamics of organic deposition in two biogroups of mountain acid beech wood (Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum, Klika, 1927, Matuszkiewicz, 1964) was conducted. The beech wood comprises 3-layer fir-hornbeam-beech stand while beech is between 60-140 years old, and fir is up to 150 years old ("A" biogroup), and 2-layer beech-stand is aged between 60-140 years with addition of sycamore ("B" biogroup). The research was carried out on the Northern slope of the main quartzite Łysogóry Massif on the Święty Krzyż Mountain at heights from 509 to 520 m ASL. 12 components were selected from organic deposition - assimilation organs of fir, beech, hornbeam, sycamore and mountain ash; fruits of beech, hornbeam and maple; small tree branches, bud hulls, bark and other components. In the time of the dynamics of organic deposition, the key role was played by quantitative ratios of assimilation organs of fir and deciduous trees occasionally with those aged 1 or 2 years (seminal years). In the years 2002-2006, a remarkable increase of organic deposition was observed in both biogroups in comparison to the previous period. In "A" biogroup which was getting old, unbalanced and high deposition of coniferous needles of fir which was under die-back and acidifying soil environment was observed, the fructification of deciduous trees decreased significantly. In "B" biogroup of beech-stand maturing, where foliage deposition dominated, total organic deposition is higher, fructification is several (2.7x) times higher, while deposition of tree branches and bark is lower in "A" biogroup.
Temporal variability of the spatial structure of maximum daily precipitation totals
[Zmienność czasowa struktury przestrzennej maksymalnych sum dobowych opadów]
Extreme precipitation events are of great significance for the operation of natural systems and can do much economic damage. Most of the climate change forecasts predict as highly probable an increase in their frequency and intensity. So far, however, little thought has been given to a possible change in the spatial structure of extreme precipitation. In the present study, a 25-year measurement series of maximum monthly and annual daily precipitation totals (mdpts) from the area of Poland was employed to test a hypothesis about the existence of seasonal and multi-year variability of their spatial structure. For each of 325 sets of data an isotropic empirical semivariogram of normalised data with a range of 212.5km (85 intervals 2.5 km in width) was calculated. The analysis of the seasonal and multi-year variability of the spatial structure was performed on parameters of semivariance models. The models were complex: they contained from two to five components. The spatial structure of mdpts shows great variability, both yearly and multi-annual, which makes it hard to establish seasonal cyclicity and possible multi-year trends. On the basis of the results of univariate analysis of variance, it was found that statistically significant seasonal variability was displayed by the nugget variance (C0), the range (A1; about 15 km on average) and the variance of the first structure (C1). Mean values of other parameters also change in a regular way, but the differences are not significant statistically. The three above-mentioned parameters (C0, A1 and C1) also show distinct multi-year trends. They take the form of cyclic variability with a period of some 19 years (C1 and A1) and an indeterminate period longer than 25 years (C0). The nugget variance is the final effect of measurement errors and short-distance variability (including spatial discontinuity and the nonsynchronic nature of mdpts). The first component can be identified primarily with precipitation from single convective cells. Thus, the performed analysis indicates that temporal changes largely affect the spatial structure of local precipitation.
Twenty-four hour cycle of the temperature of water in the Ropa river below water reservoir in Klimkówka
[Dobowy cykl temperatury wody w rzece Ropie poniżej zbiornika retencyjnego w Klimkówce]
This article is presenting a twenty-four hour cycle of the temperature of water of the Ropa river during summer, below water reservoir in Klimkówka, and in thermal conditions of water changed by him as well as a changeability of this cycle during diversified weather phenomena. Also showing, that the starting water reservoir in Klimkówka has influenced on the course of values of the temperature of water of the Ropa river in the twenty-four hours cycle, below its location.
Stanisław Huruk, Alicja Huruk, Witold Bochenek
Analysis of the structure of a ground beetle (col., carabidae) assemblage in an upland forest in Szymbark monitoring station area
[Analiza struktury zgrupowania biegaczowatych (col., carabidae) w lesie wyżynnym w obrębie stacji monitoringu Szymbark]
The study was carried out in the years 2004-2006. In each year of the study, ground beetles were collected into glycol-filled Barber’s traps in an upland forest from May to September. The collection period was divided into five monthly cycles. A total of 2625 individuals representing 19 species were collected. The numbers of species and individuals did not vary between the years of the study, exceptions including 20% more species caught in 2005 than in the remaining years and 20% more individuals caught in 2006 than in the remaining years of the study. The same ecological elements predominated in successive years in the designated ecological categories, with forestassociated species predominating with respect to habitat; mesohygrophilous elements with respect to humidity requirements; large zoophages with respect to feeding habits; and autumn breeders with respect to developmental type. Zoogeographic analysis showed a predominance of elements with narrower ranges: Euro-Siberian, montane species associated with the European Forest Province and those associated with the European Forest Province. These indices can be applied to bioindication-based evaluation of environmental conditions. Their values in this study may suggest that the study habitat was in good condition during the timeframe of the study.
In Memoriam of professor Stefan Kozłowski (1928-2007)
[Wspomnienie o Profesorze Stefanie Kozłowskim (1928-2007)]