Natural Environment Monitoring



Henryk Marszałek, Michał Rysiukiewicz
The scheme of water monitoring system in the Kamieńczyk River catchment in western part of the Karkonosze National Park

[Projekt monitoringu środowiska wodnego w zlewni Kamieńczyka w zachodniej części Karkonoskiego Parku Narodowego]
The paper presents the concept of surface- and groundwater monitoring system in the Kamieńczyk catchment located in the Karkonosze Mts. The monitoring system has been worked out in order to control valuable western part of the Karkonosze National Park because of the ski infrastructure complex extention. It has been characterized the aims of monitoring points net with the range and frequency of measurements in terms of water quantity and quality.


Anna Degórska, Urszula Białoskórska, Dorota Typiak-Nowak
Methodological aspects of precipitation sampling for heavy metals content investigation

[Metodyczne aspekty pobierania próbek opadów do oznaczania zawartości metali ciężkich]

The aim of the described experiment was testing of two methods used for collecting precipitation samples at the forest (throughfall and stemflow) for heavy metals analyses. Comparison of data obtained using two methods – samples collectors made of glass and acidification of the collected samples and polyethylene collectors without acidification – has shown that the results are much smaller when standard samples were analyzed (standard samples – collected for main ions analyses). It is particularly important in case of cadmium, lead and zinc. This experiment has shown importance of proper measurement method taking into account the aim of the research, starting with samples collecting. Precipitation samples for heavy metals analyses should be collected by the collectors made of glass and after that should be acidified in order to avoid loss of the components that are subject of the investigations.


Barbara Cisowska, Grażyna Suchanek, Marian Kargol
The dependence of root pressure on hydraulic conductivity of radial root water pathways according to the root model as a porous membrane

[Zależność ciśnienia korzeniowego od przewodności hydraulicznej radialnych korzeniowych szlaków wodnych wedle modelu korzenia jako membrany porowatej]
In the present work a root model as an osmometer containing porous membrane are proposed. Radial water and solute transport across root (from medium to a xylem vessels) has been described by the mechanistic equations by Kargol and Kargol (Kargol, 2001, 2007; Kargol, Kargol, 2003a; 2003b; Suchanek, 2005). The model can distinguish two main water pathways of the root (i.e. "from cell to cell" route and apoplastic route) and enables it to estimate (quantitatively) values of water volume flows (Jva i Jvb) and solute flow (js) across both of them. It also anticipate how was a change influence hydraulic conductivity of pathways on total root transport (especially, how it influences on the transport parameters, defined above). Analysing the model one can proved that filtration coefficient Lpa of "cell to cell" pathway influences (first of all) on a value of total reflection coefficient (r) (that is to say, on selectivity of root), since a change of coefficient Lpb of apoplastic pathway change concentration of solute in xylem sap too, so on value of root pressure Pro. The model can estimate the filtration coefficients Lpa and Lpb of individual root transport pathways, if transport parameters Pro, , Lpr, r, ωr (which are defined for total root) are known. The values of such parameters are easy of access in literature (Katchalsky, Curran, 1965; Kedem, Katchalsky, 1958; Steudle, 1990; 1992; Steudle i in., 1983; 1987; 1989; 1993) Expectations of the model was verified on a base of experimental data from work by E. Steudle and cooperatives, where hydraulic conductivity of apoplastic route was increased by creation of artificial pores using microcapillary. Changes of parameters Pro, , , resulting from this modification turned out to be consistent with model expectations. Also constant value of root filtration coefficient Lpr before and after modification is consistent with the model, if we assume that an puncturing of root increases of coefficient Lpb of apoplastic pathway and decreases of coefficient Lpa of "cell to cell" pathway because part of cortex and endodermis cells are destroyed. On a base of this model a change of hydraulic conductivity (Lpb) of apoplastic pathway coming from described modification was estimated. Results of calculations are mentioned in table 2. According to (mechanistic) root model presented here, coefficients Lpa i Lpb of appropriate root water routes (so total coefficient r) are different for different species, and they depend on geometrical dimensions of solute particles transported passively from medium to xylem and in opposite direction. In such a context, results of our work can be useful in studies of absorbing and transporting across the root systems of species (size particles of which are known)
polluting the soil.

Ewa Jachniak, Janusz Leszek Kozak
Planktonic algae – bioindycators of the eutrophication level of two dam reservoirs: Wapienica and Kozłowa Góra

[Glony planktonowe – bioindykatory poziomu zeutrofizowania dwóch zbiorników zaporowych: Wapienicy i Kozłowej Góry]
In this publication the qualitative structure of planktonic algae was presented. These planktonic algae spread out in two separate dam reservoirs: Wapienica and Kozłowa Góra. There was also presented the biomass largeness of phytoplankton. The estimate of eutrophication was performed by taking into consideration of the indicator taxons; there was used the classification proposing by Heinonen (1980), too. This classification considers the biomass largeness of phytoplankton. The typical taxons for oligotrophic water were observed in the samples of water taking from the reservoir of Wapienica, however the typical taxons for eutrophic water occured in the samples of water taking from the reservoir of Kozłowa Góra. The examinations concerning the average biomass of phytoplankton allowed classification the reservoir of Wapienica to oligo-/mesotrophic reservoirs, but the reservoir of Kozłowa Góra to hipertrophic reservoirs.

Małgorzata Anna Jóźwiak, Bartosz Jachymczyk
The role of natural barriers in the spread of transport pollution from the emission line

[Rola naturalnych zapór w rozprzestrzenianiu się zanieczyszczeń komunikacyjnych pochodzących z emisji liniowej]
The transport routes are filled with greenery in order to increase the attractiveness of the landscape, use of natural trees and shrubs for the exchange of air masses, mute noise, retention of rainwater and protection against exhaust and automotive pollution. In many situations, expressways run through, located on both sides of the roadway, natural forests complexes. The
intensity of operating routes is very high, resulting in increased emissions of pollutants from complete and incomplete combustion of petroleum fuels and the friction of tires on asphalt road surface. These pollutants are: sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), tetraethyl lead, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs),
PAHs, aldehydes, dioxins, particulates, heavy metals, including chromium, cadmium, lead. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the role of trees growing along the expressways as a natural barrier to the spread of pollutants from the emission line. In the method bioindicator Hypogymnia phosodes – lichen indicator was used, which was transplanted at the designated points of research.

Małgorzata Kijowska
Genesis and floods course in the flysch Bystrzanka catchment in the period 1995–2009

[Geneza i przebieg wezbrań we fliszowej zlewni Bystrzanki w latach 1995–2009]

Floods in small streams are the subject of numerous publications, especially in recent years, when marked the increase extreme meteorological and hydrological risk. The size of the floods is related mainly with weather conditions, especially with the precipitation and the other elements e.g. the period prior the floods, the state of the catchment retention, the manner and condition of the vegetation cover, the catchment parameters and in the winter: the water content in snow or depth of the soil freeze. Studies on the genesis and floods course were conducted in the flysch Bystrzanka catchment in the period 1995–2009. The catchment location makes two relief types to interweave. These are the relief of the Carpathian Foothills and of the Beskidy Mts., controlled by geologic structures and tectonics. The predominate type of the floods in the catchment are normal floods inducted by rainfall. The discharge with the high water level represent mean 7% of the hydrological year, are short (3,2 day) with one discharge wave, usually single. Floods which occur in the winter half year have a longer duration. It is related with the way of water supply to the main stream by the slowly snowmelt from the different and asymmetric part of the catchment. The discharge which are notice in the Bystrzanka stream are typical of the Eastern Macroregion – with the runoff predominance in the winter half year (November–April) (54%). The discharge coefficient show the complex regime, snow-rain. Analyzed period (1995–2009) in terms of the genesis, the number of floods, course, is typical in comparison to the other small stream but well reflects the environment transient from west to east and from Carpathian Foothills to Beskidy Mts.

Andrzej Kostrzewski, Józef Szpikowski, Grażyna Szpikowska
Geoecosystems Polish state – an assessment based on selected geoindicators in the Integrated Monitoring of the Natural Environment programme

[Stan geoekosystemów Polski – ocena na podstawie wybranych geowskaźników w programie Zintegrowanego Monitoringu Środowiska Przyrodniczego]
Assessment of current status, trends, threats and protection of the geographical environment is the primary purpose of research carried out since 1994 under the Integrated Monitoring of the Natural Environment. Quantitative and qualitative geoindicators, compiled on the basis of stockpiled IMNE database, allow for a fuller and more comprehensive assessment of the Polish geoecosystems. In the hydrological year 2010 the IMNE research program was conducted in eight Base Stations representing different landscape zones Polish, subjected to varying degrees of changes of natural and anthropogenic pressures. The year 2010, like the previous one, was a favorable period for delivery of water to the environment, which consequently led to the reconstruction of disturbed water retention deficient rainfall in 2002–2006. Applied geoindicators confirm a number of significant changes geoecosystems improvement: reducing pollution and increasing the pH in precipitation and a decrease in sulphate concentrations in rain waters, groundwater and surface water. Present in the atmosphere nitrogen oxides increase their participation in the acidification of precipitation by decreasing the role of sulfur dioxide. Still remain the problem of nitrogen compounds in groundwater in agricultural areas, which remained after the period of intensive fertilization, and whose removal from geoecosystem may be extended for many years. Weak trends indicating decrease of nitrogen concentrations in groundwater and surface water may mean that they are potentially a risk of eutrophication of waters in the studied geoecosystems. The presented results of a proposal to develop a quantitative methodological observed landscape changes based on long observational series obtained in IMNE. The obtained results have theoretical and practical significance for the study of planning and decision-making at different levels of environmental management.

Rafał Kozłowski
The comparisation of wet and bulk deposition in central part of Holy Cross Mountains

[Porównanie wielkości depozycji mokrej i całkowitej w centralnej części Gór Świętokrzyskich]

The physico-chemical properties as well as the chemism of atmospheric precipitation affected by the pollution of atmospheric air are among the major elements which influence present-day degradation of the natural environment. It is a fact that water, apart from acting as a partner for physical reactions, is also a carrier of anthropogenic transformation of the natural environment. The present study offers a quantitative analysis of results of wet and total deposition in the years 2008- 2009. To this end, the Eigenbrodt UNS 130 E automatic collector of wet precipitation and the Hellmann rain gauge have been used. The conducted analysis has shown significant discrepancies both in the physicochemical properties and the chemical composition of wet and total precipitation waters.

Rafał Kozłowski, Edyta Adwent
Spatial variability of selected physico-chemical soil properties in the central part of the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains

[Przestrzenna zmienność wybranych właściwości fizyczno-chemicznych gleb w centralnej części Gór Świętokrzyskich]

In the present study, the results of research into the problem of soil acidification, conducted in the central Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains geoecosystem, have been discussed. Field research conducted in the area of the Natural Environment Integrated Monitoring Base Station at Święty Krzyż covered the top mineral horizon (0–10 cm) of rusty podsolic precipitation-andgley soil. Basing on laboratory research which covered measurements of pH in H2O and KCl, as well as Hh and Hw, it may be concluded that in the geoecosystem at issue a distinct differentiation of the horizon occurs. The spatial distribution of exchange and hydrolytic acidity, as well as soil reaction, forms a specific micromosaic around tree trunks. The statistical testing analyses, conducted by means of the Mann-Whitney U test, have shown considerable statistical differences in pH and Hw values depending on tree trunk and species. It has been found that the acidified stemflow which runs down tree trunks most strongly affects the measured quantities within the distance of up to 50 cm.

Tomasz Kwiatkowski, Maria Żygadło
Analysis of the state of municipal waste landfills in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship in terms of ecological review

[Analiza stanu składowisk odpadów komunalnych w województwie świętokrzyskim w świetle wyników przeglądu ekologicznego]

In Świętokrzyskie voivodship a total of 50 municipal landfills are located. In 2010 only 15 active municipal landfill were in operation. The total area operated landfills is approximately 40 hectares. The voivodship has continued the process of closing landfills, which do not meet the technical requirements, or their capacity has been exhausted. Administrative actions focused on objects (Tab. 2) contributed to their proper functioning. All landfill sites destined to be modernized in term 2005–2009 have been upgraded with the exception of landfill "Staszów". These activities have also contributed indirectly to extend the service life of landfills. With the adjustment to the requirements of landfill regulations the negative impact on the environment will be minimized. The analysis
of the active capacity of municipal waste landfills in operation shows that in Świętokrzyskie remained only about 3 230 920.64 m3 of free landfill capacity (as of 31.12.2009), which will ensure that the needs of the region only about 11-year period of operation. For the landfill "Staszów" fall the half of the capacity. The spoken landfill until 31.12.2010 was not adapted to the requirements of law, while it is in the process of adjustment (has a valid building permit). In the case of the closure of that landfill the remaining free capacity of total number of landfills ability to receive municipal waste in the region will decrease by approximately 50%. In addition, the landfills destinated for modernization, namely: Klępie Dolne, Wola Jastrzębska, Słupcza, Bugaj, Grabowiec, Wyszyna Machorowska, Radoszyce, Fałków, Marcinków were closed. With regard to the closed municipal landfill in Świętokrzyskie, the process of rehabilitation, is very slowly which may serve over the years a serious threat to the environment. This particularly concerns the objects,
which are located in areas threatened by flood.

Azimbay Otarov, Bogusław Wiłkomirski
Migration and distribution of lead and cadmium in the profile of the main soil reclamation groups in Akdala irrigation area

[Migracja i rozprzestrzenienie ołowiu i kadmu w profilach dwóch zasadniczych grup rekultywowanych gleb z nawadnianych terenów obszaru Akdala]

Negatywny wpływ metali ciężkich na poszczególne elementy agrocenoz na terenach rolniczych zależy głównie od właściwości gleb, szczególnie tych, które wpływają na mobilność i zdolność migracji tych pierwiastków. Badanie i zależności kierujące migracją metali ciężkich mają duże znaczenie poznawcze i praktyczne. Poprzednie badania gleb w rejonie Akdala określiły cztery grupy rekultywacyjne gleb, spośród których dwie mają istotne znaczenie. Grupę pierwszą stanowią gleby słabo zasolone o lekkim składzie mechanicznym, położone w korycie i starorzeczach rzeki Ili, na których możliwe jest prowadzenie upraw bez uprzedniego przeprowadzenia zabiegów rekultywacyjnych. Druga grupa obejmuje silniej zasolone gleby o ciężkim składzie mechanicznym położone w depresjach między kanałami, które wymagają nawadniania i polepszenia struktury przed rozpoczęciem upraw. W obrębie gleb należących do tych dwóch grup wybrano reprezentatywne powierzchnie badawcze, na których wykonano 32 profile glebowe, z których pobrano 148 prób w celu identyfikacji poziomu kadmu i ołowiu i określenia podstawowych cech glebowych. Dla celów porównawczych i ewentualnego określenia wpływu antropogenicznego badano analogiczne próby gleb użytkowanych rolniczo i nieużytkowanych. Metale ciężkie oznaczano metodą absorpcyjnej spektrometrii atomowej. W profilach gleb z pierwszej grupy zarówno użytkowanych rolniczo, jak i nieużytkowanych, poziom ołowiu wykazywał cechy rozkładu eluwialnoiluwialnego, co oznaczało usuwanie tego pierwiastka z poziomu eluwialnego (warstwy ornej) i akumulowanie w warstwie niższej – iluwialnej. Warstwa ta stanowi barierę do dalszej migracji ołowiu. W profilach gleb drugiej grupy zaobserwowano akumulacyjny typ rozkładu poziomu ołowiu. W profilach wszystkich badanych gleb kadm lokuje się zgodnie z akumulacyjnym typem dystrybucji, w którym obserwuje się poziom nagromadzania się tego pierwiastka, a geochemiczna bariera migracji charakteryzuje się stosunkowo wysoką zawartością humusu. Zauważono również, że gleby obu grup użytkowane rolniczo zawierają wyższe stężenia obu badanych metali niż ich nieużytkowane analogi.

Unida Sharafutdinova, Uktam Toyirov, Bachtior Salakhutdinov, Anisa Tashmukhamedova, Ulugbek Mirkhodjaev
Complexation characteristics of membrane-active crown-ether

[Charakterystyka kompleksowania błono-aktywnych eterów koronowych]

Etery koronowe stanowią dużą grupę błonowo-aktywnych związków organicznych, które są intensywnie badane ze względu na swoją aktywność kompleksującą, jonoforową i możliwość tworzenia kanałów jonowych. Niniejszy artykuł opisuje możliwe oddziaływania między sulfopochodnymi DB18C6 z jonami K+, Na+, Ca2+ w roztworach wodnych i alkoholowych, badane metodami konduktometrycznymi. Analiza oddziaływań termodynamicznych wykazała, że proces oddziaływania eterów koronowych z jonami jedno- i dwuwartościowymi przebiega spontanicznie. Oddziaływania te polegają na tworzeniu wiązań jonowych między jonami zdysocjowanych soli z naładowanymi rejonami eterów koronowych. Wyniki otrzymane dla sulfopochodnych DB18C6 nie wykazały możliwości tworzenia stabilnych oddziaływań z jonami jedno- i dwuwartościowymi ani w roztworach wodnych, ani alkoholowych. Pozwala to na wyciągnięcie wniosku dotyczącego niejonoforowego charakteru badanych związków i potwierdza sugestię dotyczącą ich zdolności do zmiany przepuszczalności błon w wyniku tworzenia struktur transportujących jony.

Inobat Shirinova
The influence of catacyn and benzonal on Ca2+ accumulating capacity of liver mitochondria in rats intoxicated with the venom of Naja oxiana Eichwald

[Wpływ katacyny i benzonalu na zdolność akumulacyjną mitochondriów wątroby szczurów po podaniu jadu kobry środkowoazjatyckiej (Naja oxiana Eichwald)]

Praca przedstawia wpływ benzonalu i katacyny (substancji wykazujących efekt antyhipoksyjny) na transport wapnia w mitochondriach komórek wątroby u szczurów, którym podawano jad kobry środkowoazjatyckiej i u zwierząt kontrolnych. Szczury o przeciętnej masie 200–300 g zostały podzielone na cztery grupy. Zwierzętom z grup 1, 2 i 4 wstrzykiwano domięśniowo jad kobry w ilości 160 g kg-1 wagi ciała. Po dwóch minutach szczurom z grupy 2 i 3 podawano benzonal lub katacynę w ilości 50 mg kg-1 wagi ciała. Czwartej grupie podawano roztwór soli fizjologicznej. Zwierzęta uśmiercano 15 minut po podaniu jadu. Badania wykazały, że po podaniu benzonalu i katacyny zmniejszała się zdolność akumulacyjna mitochondriów wątroby w stosunku do jonów Ca2+, odpowiednio o 32,4 i 26,8%. Spadek ten powodowany przez wyżej wymienione substancje był związany albo z hamowaniem funkcji absorpcyjnej mitochondriów w stosunku do jonów wapnia, albo przez zwiększenie zawartości glikoprotein po wpływem benzonalu i kataryny, które specyficznie absorbowały Ca2+, lub w wyniku aktywacji przez receptor ryanodinowy. Uzyskane wyniki sugerowały hamowanie transferu Ca2+ do mitochondriów przez benzonal i katacynę. Wykazano, że jad kobry środkowoazjatyckiej zwiększa przyswajanie jonów wapnia w mitochondriach wątroby szczurów o 68,6%. Przy udziale benzonalu i katacyny wzrost ten wynosi odpowiednio, 17,4 i 20,4%. Oznacza to, ze benzonal i katacyna redukują zdolność akumulacyjną mitochondriów w stosunku do jonów wapnia, co wskazuje na niemal całkowitą redukcję ujemnego wpływu jadu N. oxiana w tym aspekcie.

Łukasz Wiejaczka, Małgorzata Kijowska
Changes in the position of the Carphatian rivers bed in the light of low water levels analysis

[Zmiany położenia dna koryt rzek karpackich w świetle analizy stanów niskich]

This paper presents an analysis of changes in the position of channels bottom level of the Carpathian rivers, located within the Low Beskid (Ropa, Zdynia and Przysłup). The dynamic of channels bottom level position of examined levels based on hydrological data of daily water levels, recorded in the gage sections, which are a hydrological warp of the Klimkowka reservoir. In the study used data from the period 1995–2010. Results of analysis showed that the dominant process in considered watercourses is dredging. An important process in the case of some rivers, occur periodically
increasing the level of the channel bottom, caused by natural and anthropogenic factors. The results also confirm the usefulness of hydrological data in the study of changes in the position of river channels bottom.


Maciej Jóźwiak
Environmental fee – legal obligation or conscious duty

[Opłata za korzystanie ze środowiska – przymus prawny czy świadoma powinność]

Payment of fees for use of the environment, by their nature similar to taxes, is the responsibility of each person whose action may impact on the environment. There is a list of enumerated exemptions, but it should be – in principle – assumed, that everyone who uses the environment should be aware of its duty, properly calculate a fee and pay it in accordance with the statutory requirements. Penalty for lack of payment can be imposed by the competent authority of the government administrative. The penalty is independent of the obligation to pay the overdue fee. The liable person however has a right to appeal against a decision imposing such penalties.