Alojzy Kowalkowski, Marek Jóźwiak
Rola Zintegrowanego Monitoringu Środowiska Przyrodniczego w systemie zrównoważonego zarządzania Środowiskowego
In the search of new ways of wise management, contemporary ecologists propose introduction of an evolutionary environmental management system of whole ecosystems to the economy. Models of adaptive management ought to be based on data about processes occurring in biotope and in biocenosis, of a well-known history of development, obtained from a scientifically planned, socially credible, continuous monitoring realized in ecosystems management units (EMU). The present strategies of sustainable environmental development are specified by the leaders of organizations which implement and maintain the system of environmental management and institutional environmental watch units, according to the principle of good will. This system operates in accordance with the Resolution of the European Union No. 1836/93, approved by the Resolution No. 761/2001 of the European Parliament, European Council and the European Standard EN-ISO 14001. This standard contains a set of requirements for the environmental management system . Data resources about changes in the environment of ecosystems on the local regional and global scales, necessary for the proper planning of the management system are provided by the system of permanent monitoring areas. Their initial organization is the system of base stations of the Integrated Monitoring of the Natural Environment.
Marek Jóźwiak, Alojzy Kowalkowski
Rozwinięta koncepcja monitoringu leśno-rolnego ekosystemu regionu świętokrzyskiego
The study presents the developed conception of integrated monitoring carried out in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains since 1993. The investigations are carried out on the area of the so-called White Basin and Świętokrzyski National Park by the Monitoring Station of Świętokrzyska Academy. They include measurements of the basic features of the representative eco habitat in perpendicular section in the system atmosphere (input) – hylosphere – pedosphere (processing) – hydrosphere – lithosphere (output) as well as in the horizontal – micro drainage catchment. In accordance with adopted aims, the measuring programme comprises 6 component elements of the ecosystem: air, vegetation, climate, soils, rainfall and surface waters as well as rocks. These elements are considered in the sense of integrated interactions of environmental components, operating incessantly in time and space. The measuring programme takes into account changes in land use and various symptoms of anthropopression. This will allow in future to estimate in a more comprehensive way the dynamics of processes occurring in forest and agricultural ecosystems. It will also permit to estimate trends, prepare prognoses and determine indicatory values about the state of the natural environment, which will be used for its assessment in the realization of the assumptions of the policy of ecodevelopment on the regional and national levels.
Zintegrowane wskaźniki stanu środowiska przyrodniczego
In the 1970s and 1980s in world literature were described many different methods and techniques of the assessment of the environment, both in cognitive and practical aspects. This was caused by a huge demand on such opinions, without which it is impossible to understand the basic regularities that determine the mutual relationships between man and his environment. A characteristic feature of many of the most important environmental issues at present is the fact that we recognize them only when their causes disappeared without investigation, whereas their outcomes and pressures intensified continuously, and at a certain moment it became obvious that they have a significant effect on man and the environment. In the 1990s research work was initiated into the developing indicatory systems which would reflect the relationships among the state of the natural environment, economic processes and the effectiveness of environmental protection. The D-P-S-I-R method [Driving Forces – Pressures – State – Impact – Response] was developed in the European Environment Agency (EEA), and the P-S-R method [Pressures- State-Response] was developed in the United Nations Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Most of the coefficients developed so far are focused on the presentation of causes, the current state and public response. They concern the questions of sustainable development in the economic, social, environmental and institutional aspects. The P-S-R method, developed in Poland, presents the cause-and-effect relationships occurring between man’s effect on the environment, the quality of individual components of the environment and taking of remedial actions aimed at the improvement of the existing situation.
Wskaźniki ekochemicznego stanu gleb leśnych zagrożonych przez zakwaszenie
The integrated natural environment monitoring network, which includes permanent observation sites of forest ecosystems – level II, with a suitable temporary and spatial intensity of measurements, permits to specify adequately both temporary states impulse/reaction and as spatial heterogeneity of the system states. The knowledge of the ongoing pulsation processes in ecosystems can be derived as a rule from temporary trends characterized by sufficiently long data series or by description of ecosystem state sizes. Direct multifaceted observations and measuring procedures permit to specify the system parameter changeability and thereby to approximate the probability of crossing the states of threat threshold values of changes or rapid changes in the ecosystem. The important perspective of risk state estimation emerges in the case of learning about the system states in possibly narrow time intervals, which allows for modelling. In the study was introduced, on the basis of the syntheses of the results of long-term continuous measurements on surfaces of level II (Reuss, Johnson 1986, Wolff et al. 1999, Svedrup and Warfvinge 1993, 1995, Block et al. 2000, Pälchen, Bart 2001, Becker et al. 2000) as well as the results of the Św. Krzyż Monitoring Station (Kowalkowski et al. 2000, 2001) the possibility of the utilization of data about soils (soil solutions, permanent soil phase) for the specification of the coefficients of their states and potentials of threat due to acidification. The choice of coefficients includes: buffer reactions in soils in dependence of pH of solution, buffer ranges of soil on the basis of predominant processes of dissociation of soil solution, classification of degrees of soil acidification according to Ulrich (Ma%), base saturation, alkality coefficient (ALK µmole 1-1) of soil solutions and rainfall waters with pricing, capacity of acid neutralization (ANC µmole.µmole 1-1), molar relations Ca/Al (mole, mole-1) with pricing of stress risk Al as well as BC/Al mol.mol-1 with critical coefficients of Al stress for different trees and forest plants, as well as the resources of interchangeable cations Mb(kmol(+) hectare-1 dm-1) with pricing of their resources.
Alojzy Kowalkowski, Marek Jóźwiak, Rafał Kozłowski
Metoda badania wpływu wód opadowych na właściwości gleb leśnych
Stemfall and throughfall waters obtain new chemical properties in the forest and exert influence on the pH values of soils and other easily changing properties. New spatial arrangements of properties are developed in the forest stands, particularly around the trunks of older trees. They create concentric “gradients” around trees which change with distance from tree trunks on a definite forest acreage. It is known, e.g. that the pH value in surface levels of mineral soils under tree crowns is greater and the greatest in hatches between tree crowns. The knowledge of the micromosaic arrangement of the property of forest soils is made possible by the method of investigation of the paths of substance flow with rainfall waters through forest stand to soil on the basis of 5-15 parallel repetitions in the arrangement of 4 measuring lines according to cardinal points, with the intersection point - the trunk of a measuring tree. Data obtained in this way at the tree trunk in the decimetric and metric distances are a sufficient basis for the cartographic representation of measurement results and ecological interpretation. Biogroups of forest-forming trees of the known crown structure, morphological form of bark and root system are qualified for measurement. Results of these investigations can be used directly in forest economy, and particularly in the interpretation of development trends of soils, forest assemblages and forest stands under the influence of acid falls.
Możliwości i sposoby wykorzystania grzybów w badaniach monitoringu środowiska
The article presents selected examples of the use of macromycetes fungi in the local monitoring of the biological environment and in the monitoring of the physical parameters of the environment. The experimental methods used in the investigation of macromycetes fungi, such as fixed investigation areas, fulfil the basic assumptions of monitoring. The biological sensitivity of fungi to various kinds of environmental changes perfectly predisposes this group for monitoring investigation. In this investigation the fungi can be perceived as the investigation object and they can be themselves indicators of changes in the environment.
Organizacja monitoringu jakości zwykłych wód podziemnych w sieciach krajowej i regionalnej w województwie świętokrzyskim
Monitoring of ordinary water quality in points of the national and regional networks on the territory of Świętokrzyskie Province has been carried out since 1991/1992. There are 24 points of the national and 106 points of the regional groundwater quality monitoring network. The network points are dug wells, drilled wells, infiltration sources and intakes of river waters (in the Nida river basin). Water quality is examined on all usable watercarrying levels. Annual reports are made from the results of the examinations and delivered to the provincial Inspectorate of Environmental Protection in Kielce and the Department of Environmental Protection and Agriculture of the Świętokrzyski Province Hall. They contain results of chemical analyses of groundwater together with a simple assessment. Once in a couple of years special reports are made. They contain a detailed assessment of the state of groundwater quality on the territory of the Province.
Struktura czasowa wybranych serii pomiarowych Zintegrowanego Monitoringu Środowiska Przyrodniczego
Semivariogam analysis was applied to detect hidden time structure of three types of data: daily mean soil temperature at 50 cm depth, daily cumulative average of gas/aerosol pollutants concentrations and monthly weighted mean precipitation pollutants concentrations. The first data set are of high time inertia, high measurement frequency and low level of processing of original measurements. The second one differs by high time variability, looks even chaotic and lacks of any processing of original measurements data. The third data set comes from much less frequent measurements and was highly processed. Soil temperature time pattern is dominated by seasonal component. Subtracting seasonal component exposes short time autocorrelation structure with 12 and 51 days range. It’s effect of soil thermal conductivity and reflects time delay in heating and cooling at 50 cm depth. Combining deterministic (seasonal sine function) and probabilistic (semivariogram) approach yields prediction of missing data at 0.1ºC precision level so it is comparable with measurement error. Monthly precipitation solute data shows three kinds of time pattern: seasonal (Ca, Mg, Na, S-SO4, N-NH4), long time tendency (trend, Cl, Zn) or lack of autocorrelation (CTY, Mn, P-PO4). Gas/aerosol pollutants time series shows similar, strong, short time autocorrelation structure, with 3.1–3.9 and 7.5–10 days ranges. It is the effect of typical frequency of weather changes in Poland. Each three for four days (100 times in the year) new air masses flowing in and weather changes. This data shows that complete air replacement (and lack of similarity in its physical and chemical properties) take place after two weather front shiftings. Pollutants variability in the time shorter than sampling interval (1 day) accounts 25 to 35% of total variability. Semivariogram analysis can also be an aid in choosing optimal measurement frequency, loosing some redundant information.
Jadwiga Barga.Więcławska, Joanna Czerwik.Marcinkowska, Teresa Mrozińska.Broda
Monitoring przestrzeni pohutniczej Zespołu Wielkopiecowego w Starachowicach z wykorzystaniem glonów i ślimaków jako biowskaźników stanu środowiska przyrodniczego
The results of algological and malacological studies on the Blast Assembly in Starachowice are presented. The alga and snails were collected in 2000 and 2001. The present study was undertaken to establish the species composition and their distribution in natural environment inquired of the post–ironmaking space. A number of 35 species of alga and 25 species of snails from different ecological groups have been found on selected sites coupled with different stages of technological process. It was observed that although far–moved degradation of soil and water, either alga and snails could accommodate to changeable circumstances of natural environment and also they created adaptor mechanism which allowed them for intensive development and slow succession of the post–ironmaking space on the Blast Assembly. The occurrence in this area of rare and vulnerable species (Ophiocytium iikae, Helix lutescens) indicates a unique natural character of the Assembly.
Stanisław Huruk, Anna Huruk
Struktura zgrupowań biegaczowatych (Coleoptera, Carabidae) w uroczysku Serwis Świętokrzyskiego Parku Narodowego w dwóch okresach badawczych
The paper presents the results of studies carried out in the Serwis range within the Świętokrzyski National Park in 1982–1983 and then repeated on the same study sites in 1994–1995. Four of the sites were set up in a typical fir stand (variant I) and another four in a strongly transformed fir stand with pine as a dominant (variant II). It was found that all parameters used to describe the communities had changed. Fewer individuals were captured compared to the first study, (the number of species captured in the “variant II” stand had also decreased). The main eudominant had also changed as A. carinatus had replaced E. secalis, which was eudominant in the first study. New dominant species also appeared and mean community biomass increased. Major changes to ecological structure included an increase in the share of large zoophages, which were assuming dominant or co– dominant positions within the communities. A zoogeographical analysis revealed decreasing shares of widely distributed species, and increasing shares of those occupying narrower geographical ranges. The time of peak activity of communities also shifted, from September in the first study to June. Environmental conditions were found to have improved by the time of the second study as was the structure of the communities under study. These observations suggest that ground beetles may function as bioindicators of the condition of the habitat where they live.
Katarzyna Sawicka.Kapusta, Marta Zakrzewska
Zanieczyszczenie powietrza w Świętokrzyskim Parku Narodowym na podstawie biowskaźników w latach 1991-2001
Lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. was used to compare the air pollution in Świętokrzyski National Park in 1991 and 1998 and to estimate the air pollution in the Base Station Św. Krzyż. The data obtained showed decrease in concentrations of most studied metals. Results from 2001 indicate still high amounts of Pb, Zn and S. Basing on Global Pollution Index and Sulphur Index, ŚwNP was estimated as a moderately polluted park.
Marek Jóźwiak, Hubert Wróblewski
Dynamika pyłu zawieszonego na tle wybranych parametrów meteorologicznych na Stacji Monitoringu AŚ w okresie 1996-2000
Air pollution is understood as the presence of solid, liquid and gaseous substances, in the bottom layer of the atmosphere, alien to its natural composition, which occur in quantities hazardous for man’s health, harmful for plants, animals and exerting an unfavourable influence on climate and on the way of the utilization of definite elements of the environment. The exact knowledge of the kind, causes, sizes and dynamics of the pollutants is the basis for concerted efforts aimed at the restoration and further maintenance of clean atmospheric air. Dust is one of the main components of atmospheric air pollution. In dependence of the kind and size distribution, dust may freely fall in the air or become suspended for a long time. The aim of the present study is to present the dynamics of suspended dust on the basis of results obtained at the Monitoring Station of Świętokrzyskiej Academy in the years 1994-2000. The investigations carried out so far (Jóźwiak 2001, Jóźwiak, Kowalkowski 2002, Kowalkowski et al. 2002, Kozłowski 2001) showed that the natural environment of Świętokrzyski National Park is in the stage of multidirectional advanced and increasing evolutionary transformations. The direct sources of part of air dust pollution, measured at the Święty Krzyż Monitoring Station, are power stations, households, heating plants, industrial institutions and transportation. Registration of suspended dust concentrations derived from distant transport is due to the location of the Station 500 m above sea level and the direction of polluted air masses. The average suspended dust concentration for the years 1994-2000 is 27.72 µg•m-3 with annual fluctuations from 38.46 µg•m-3 in the year 1994 and 28.49 µg•m-3 in the year 1998, to 25.48 µg•m-3 in the year 1995 and 24.13 µg•m-3 in the year 2000. The highest annual dust concentration was recorded in winter, spring and autumn. Out of the analyzed natural factors, air temperature and relative moisture as well as rainfalls and wind speed exert effect on the change of dust concentration.
Zróżnicowanie wielkości i jakości wód spływających po pniach drzew w wybranych ekosystemach leśnych w Górach Świętokrzyskich
In the period comprising the years 2000–2001 an investigation was carried out into the sizes and qualities of stemflow waters. On the basis of calculations with the use of coefficient FR, higher values of this coefficient were found in the case of the largest diameter trees, both in case of deciduous and coniferous species. The recorded values of the coefficient ANCaq showed unambiguously two kinds of industrial influence on the chosen geoecosystems. The geoecosystem of Malik Hill is under the influence alkaline ambient concentration, while the geoecosystem situated in Świętokrzyski National Park is influenced by acid ambient concentration, caused, among others, by remote transportation. This is indicated by registered ANCaq values, both in direct fall and stemflow waters. On the basis of the investigation significant differences were found in the size of deciduous tree stemflow water on both investigated sides in comparison with coniferous species. In the chosen geoecosystem in Świętokrzyski National Park in the investigated period, the average beech stemflow was 22.9% of direct rainfall, whereas in the geoecosystem on Malik Hill it was only 14%. A little lower values were recorded for hornbeam – 11.2%. In the case of coniferous trees fir stemflow was on average 2.0% of direct fall, while pine stemflow was 0.5%.
Ocena możliwości retencyjnych pokryw glebowo.zwietrzelinowych na stoku pogórskim
The main aim of this paper is assessment of retention possibility in slope covers on flysch foothill slope. They were taken into consideration results of investigation of particular elements of water circulation on slope: overland flow, throughflow, water stage in piezometers to depth: 20, 50, 100, 150, 200 cm. They are define relationship between a water stage and overland flow or throughflow intensity. The author also defined water stages frequency in piezometer holes, which is dependent on the granulometric composition of soil. The author carried out the field experiment, whose aim was definition of water transmission speed from top to valley bottom.
Zróżnicowanie bioklimatu Kielc w sezonie letnim
The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of differentiation of biotopoclimatic conditions on the area of Kielce during summer season. An attempt at estimation of the effect of individual factors upon these conditions was The measurements were made in 8 places located in various topographical situations (max. distance 4,5 km). Downtown points SQUARE (PLAC) and STATION (DWORZEC) represented build–up area, the point PARK was situated in City Park and CATHEDRAL (KATEDRA) was located on the cathedral hill. The points SILNICA and LAKE (ZALEW) were situated (respectively) at the bottom of the river valley, and in the vicinity of the artificial lake. The point HOSPITAL (SZPITAL) was on the hill near a wide road. The stand GARDEN (OGRÓDEK) was located outside the town and was treated as a relation point. The synchronous all day and every hour measurements were conducted in June and July of 1999, 2000 and 2001 during sunny and dry weather. The measurements of air temperature and humidity were made by Assmann’s aspiration psychrometers at 130 cm above the ground. The cooling power was measured by Kata thermometers at the same level. The speed of wind was measured by Robinson’s anemometer at height 200 cm. Statistical characteristics of some meteorological elements and biometeorological indices are presented in table 1. Relationships between hourly values of ground surface temperature outside the city (GARDEN) and appropriate values at the remaining points were calculated. The temperature of the ground (active surface) most differentiated measured points. Its role as differentiation factor increased in conditions of intense insolation at midday. Relationships between active surface temperature outside the town (GARDEN) and on the other points were obtained in the form of logarithmic functions. These functions revealed 3 groups of points: very warm (SQUARE, STATION, CATHEDRAL), moderately warm (LAKE, HOSPITAL) and cool (PARK, SILNICA). The first group of points has usually a higher air temperature in relation to the suburban. The frequency of sultry states was calculated using Leitsner scale of equivalent temperature (Prott formula) and Scharlau’s criterion of actual vapour pressure. Sultry periods occurred most often in the vicinity of water (LAKE and SILNICA) and inside compact building (STATION and SQUARE). Bioclimatic conditions in the town with respect to dry cooling power using Kacvisnsky and Petrovič scale were estimated too. The comfort conditions “calm” were most often in points GARDEN and LAKE. On the other hand thermal condition “hot” were noted most often on stands SILNICA and STATION because these places are sheltered. The conditions “cool” occurred only at points GARDEN and HOSPITAL. Tree clustering analysis was conducted in order to determine bioclimatic differentiation on the basis of average values of individual elements and all elements jointly. The results are presented in the form of dendrograms using Manhattan distance method. The highest degree of bioclimatic similarity in recpect of mean values distinguished CATHEDRAL and HOSPITAL – the points situated on hill with grass as active surface. The second set forms SILNICA and PARK, which characterised by small ventilation. The most individual character of its bioclimate appeared SQUARE and STATION, which represented concrete–covered active surfaces. In conclusion one may state that differentiation of biotopoclimate in Kielce during radiation weather is determined above all by physical properties of the active surface.
Magdalena Woźniak, Maria Żygadło
Monitoring składowisk odpadów paleniskowych
Present legal regulations obligate to monitor refuse landfields. Rainfall water, frequently acid rainfall washout soluble substances from waste products. The object of investigation is the landfields of fly ash waste from heat – power plant in Kielce. The aim of that research was analysis of climate factors and time duration on erosive processes of fly ash, which was deposited on the wet landfields. The range of investigation included the exposure of fly ash to low temperatures (freezing), exposure to UV radiation and coincident effect of low temperatures and UV radiation on fly ash. The water extracts from the fly–ash were examined from the point of view of variability of pH and conductivity. The analysis of heavy metals concentration in fly ash eluted with water after 60 cycle was also conducted with AAS metod.
Zdzisław Migaszewski, Agnieszka Gałuszka
Stan środowiska przyrodniczego Gór Świętokrzyskich w badaniach naukowych i edukacji Zakładu Geochemii i Ochrony Środowiska Instytutu Chemii Akademii Świętokrzyskiej w Kielcach
This report presents an outline of geochemical and biogeochemical studies that have been conducted in forest ecosystems of the Holy Cross Mts in cooperation with the Polish Geological Institute since 1994. The scope of investigation has encompassed soil, rocks, plant bioindicators (lichen species Hypogymnia physodes, Scots pine, mosses), airborne dusts, and locally spring waters. These media have been analyzed for 30–50 major and trace elements, organics – polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides (Central Chemical Laboratory of PGI in Warsaw), and for stable sulfur and lead isotopes (Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, U.S. Geological Survey in Denver, Colorado). The results of these studies have been presented in many Polish and foreign publications. In addition, basic determinations of surface and underground waters for pH, redox potential, conductivity, selected anions and cations have been performed by undergraduate students. The courses of study include lectures, seminars, lab and field exercises, during which different aspects and problems of environmental sciences (geochemistry, biogeochemistry, law, engineering and technology) are discussed. This curriculum is supplemented by the activity of students’ scientific society named “Calcite”, geoecological trips, and by participation in annual Science Festivals in Kielce.